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Creating a Traversable Wormhole

Can traversable wormholes be created, allowing us to achieve our wildest dreams of traveling between the stars? Mohammad Mansouryar says yes, and in a paper titled “On a macroscopic traversable spacewarp in practice,” the young Iranian theorist lays out his argument. Mansouryar bases his thinking on a needed prerequisite: the violation of the Averaged Null Energy Condition. He writes up its parameters in a 41 page document stuffed with conjectures, eight boxes of figures and 127 footnotes.

Mansouryar’s analysis is intractable to Centauri Dreams, demanding an examination from those far more competent in theoretical physics than myself. Especially given his startling conclusion: “In this paper, I have tried to review the literature, in the spirit of whether the TWs [traversable wormholes] in practice are far reaching or constructible by present knowledge & technology. The conclusion is they are quite possible to manufacture provided a sufficient determination of investment on improving computation tools & necessary materials.”

The goal, of course, is all but magical. A workable wormhole using Mansouryar’s methods would allow a spacecraft to take a cosmic bypass, riding a subluminal warp drive through the wormhole shortcut so that distances through space are radically altered while maintaining spacetime stability for passengers. The result is a hybrid of warp drive thinking a la Alcubierre and the classic wormhole as, more or less, conceived by science fiction.

On a Web site devoted to his work, the author notes that while increasing velocity in space is a desirable goal, the final goal is not the speed of light. For one thing, even c is too limiting when compared to cosmic distances, and the technical problems of accelerating closer and closer to c still stand. Mansouryar is also well aware of control problems at superluminal speeds, impacts from interstellar dust at high velocity, and the intractable issue of propulsion systems. His goal is to create a system in which local movement is much less than c but, as he says on his Web site “…the considered distance changes so that consequently would be less devoted time, finally in compared to a situation if a light pulse would be supposed to pass the same distance.”

A traversable wormhole is a solution if we can find a way to produce the negative energy needed to create and stabilize it. The paper discusses methods for producing exotic matter and muses on techniques to verify Mansouryar’s wormhole theories experimentally. Abstract and full text are available on the arXiv site, where the paper will doubtless produce controversy and discussion — particularly as to his experimental ideas — more illuminating than Centauri Dreams can provide.

Comments on this entry are closed.

  • kurt9 February 28, 2006, 21:07

    The guys at Earthtech are also into wormholes. They have several papers and presentations about them at their site (www.earthtech.org) as well as at the STAIF 2006 website.

    Making wormholes requires “negative” energy which, theoretically, can be produced by various methods in the laboratory. This is highly speculative stuff even though GR appears to allow for their creation. The energy conditions required to make wormholes is much greater than those required for the Heim hyperdrive (if the Heim theory turns out to be correct).

    One question about wormholes. If you can make a wormhole, why do you need a spacecraft at all? Would it not be possible to make them in some building right here on Earth and simply walk through them, just like in “SG-1” or “Pandora’s Star”?

    Wormhole technology is very destablizing, at least if we all stay here on Earth. You could run an army through them and invade another country. Or you could run terrorists through them. Wormholes have a .00001% or less chance of being realized. So, it is actually worth (the US government or military) to spend a few million $ to determine if they can be developed or not.

    I think the energy conditions necessary to confirm the Heim hyperdrive effect are much less than those required to make wormholes. Hense, the hyperdrive should be pursued first.

  • Joseph March 1, 2006, 3:11

    Actually with all the conflicting theories I’m a bit hopefull that one of them may prove out some day.
    The impression I had from the quick read was use of a micro wormhole with some type of device upon the vessel to form a bubble for transiting through it (like a greased orange sliding through a piece of surgical tubing). I have no idea of course if his mathmatics passed a sanity check, I saved a copy for my son to look at when he returns this summer (about to start his post-grad in mathmatics so after all that cash I spent he better be able to understand some of it :)
    Was there anything in there about how he proposed to form a far end terminus?

  • Administrator March 1, 2006, 9:20

    My early impression, re kurt9’s comment above, is that the Heim ideas would be much more readily subject to laboratory experiment than Mansouryar’s theories — this is just a hunch, as I find Heim impenetrable. kurt9’s caveats are sensible, and my own view is that we’re more likely to find traces of wormholes left over from the early universe (almost certainly unusable as transportation devices) than to be able to construct them. But I would be utterly delighted to be proven wrong!

    As to Joseph’s comment, I think the ‘greased orange sliding through a piece of surgical tubing’ is precisely the right image. I don’t recall discussion of a far-end terminus and am not sure how it would be created through Mansouryar’s methods, but there’s much I still have to tackle in this paper.

  • Jack Sarfatti July 2, 2006, 23:59

    Check out http://stardrive.org
    and my book Super Cosmos on Amazon

  • Melvin November 12, 2006, 17:03

    I’m doing a report on wormholes, and i would like some information. I would be very grateful!

  • Administrator November 12, 2006, 18:07

    One book that comes to mind to get started is Lawrence Krauss’ The Physics of Star Trek — it’s been a while, but I think I recall a discussion of wormholes there. Also, you can check Stephen Hawking’s The Universe in a Nutshell for some background information and I’d recommend looking through the bibliographies of both books for more references that might help. Finally, Kip Thorne’s book Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein’s Outrageous Legacy get into a discussion of all these matters. Maybe some readers can suggest other sources. Good luck on the paper! Oh, and be sure to search back issues of Astronomy magazine for general articles that pertain to this.

  • Jakk November 28, 2006, 14:30

    In theory a wormhole is impossible. Creating a white hole is improbable.

  • Chris November 30, 2006, 17:08

    As much as I would like to believe that worm holes are possible, it nearly seems impossbile. It is highly unlikely there will be enough stable ‘negative energy’ to create adi hole. Even if there was enough, a traversable worm hole is damn near crazy. The main problem is acceleration. When traveling through time and space, the force of the acceleration would be too much for even the highest trained astronauts. At least that is my opinion.

  • Matt Robare January 16, 2007, 21:52

    Wormholes are a predicted consequence of certain solutions to general relativity. However, they are quite unstable and the vast majority of them either require flying into a black hole or are at the quantum level.

  • Adam January 17, 2007, 2:19

    Hi All

    Recently Nikolai Kardashev and Igor Novikov have published the opinion that quasars are probably wormhole exits – hard to argue with some of the world’s experts on black-holes/worm-holes.


    Of course that doesn’t mean we can access them easily either. But another paper suggests that a properly timed electromagnetic pulse can cause the event horizon of a black-hole to open up for a useful time…


    …which might prove useful to an advanced civilisation.

    Of course a real problem is that we really have no idea where wormholes and related ‘shortcuts’ might actually end up. Exciting prospects for bold explorers.


  • ljk January 17, 2007, 9:54

    Remember in the 1970s how scientists postulated on the
    existence of white holes, the opposite of black holes (I really
    prefer the term collapsars, keeping in tune with pulsars and
    quasars) as they ejected matter into space rather than pulled
    it all in.

    Some scientists also thought that white holes were the other
    ends of collapsars in terms of where all the matter that fell
    into a collapsar went. Of course none have ever been found
    and as far as I can tell, the idea has disappeared down a
    theoretical collapsar and had yet to emerge elsewhere in
    this Universe at least.

  • Adam January 17, 2007, 13:49

    Hi Larry

    White holes were found to have to keep expanding or else turn into black holes. Also, apparently though I am unsure of the details, only one can exist in our Universe at a time and right from the beginning, so perhaps our Universe is a white hole?


  • Nathan January 27, 2007, 5:37

    “Or you could run terrorists through them.”

    I hate to appear overly argumentative but that is possibly the most ludicrous concept I have ever heard of. If more people thought like that we would be lucky to have fire in our caves let alone be discussing the universe over the internet

  • fraser hoffe March 25, 2007, 18:42

    A wormhole is an electromagnetic pathway created naturally by sunspots. These pathways carry
    atomic and subatomic building blocks of life essentially colonising earth with the suns’ effluent. An artificial wormhole has the same properties as a sun hole without the congestion
    of the suns colonising particles. Propulsion is the collapse of the energy hole behind the traveling craft causing a magnetic wake that absorbs then dissipates friction and turbulance
    leaving the path ahead clear for phenominal speed.

  • Jerry May 22, 2007, 22:05

    in response to Chris – The main problem is acceleration. When traveling through time and space, the force of the acceleration would be too much for even the highest trained astronauts. At least that is my opinion.

    If a ship accelerates to such speeds, acceleration(g-forces) would not be a factor, as the reference frame of the occupants in the ship would remain the same.

  • Hein September 26, 2007, 14:14

    If using a wormhole to travel around the galaxy you would have it open here on earth and on the spot you want to be, but if u open it lets say on another planet, and the gravity and air dencety is not 100% the same as on earth you would get a vacuum effect, and the effect would be so uge if lets say you open it mid space, so what would then be the use of it, if you cant controll the vacuum…

    Its like when your in the international space stasion, and one of the guys on the ship shoots a hole in the hull, what will happen a very big vacuum! A wormhole would have the same effect. So lets now say we can keep it open, what happens if we cant close it again. if the vacuum keeps on going…the point of the wormhole would be useless. It works both ways, if the vacuum is from earth to the other side or the other side to earth, air dencety is something i think wasn’t ever brought into account.

    So my seeing on things are as follow….a wormhole is rubbish if the controll factor isn’t 100% not just in the creating, opening, sustaining, passing, and manipulating side of things, but the unforseen factors aswell. It would be like the creation of the atom bomb itself, we have something great but wont ever be able to use it in itself!

  • ljk December 11, 2007, 10:39

    arXiv:0711.2297 (*cross-listing*)

    Date: Wed, 14 Nov 2007 20:41:33 GMT (470kb)

    Title: Traversable wormholes in a string cloud

    Authors: Martin Richarte and Claudio Simeone

    Categories: gr-qc astro-ph

    Comments: 21 pages, 10 figures; accepted for publication
    in Int. J. Mod. Phys. D

    We study spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes in a
    string cloud background in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime.
    The amount of exotic matter required for the construction,
    the traversability and the stability under radial perturbations,
    are analyzed as functions of the parameters of the model.

    Besides, in the Appendices a non perturbative approach to
    the dynamics and a possible extension of the analysis to a
    related model are briefly discussed.

    http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.2297 , 470kb

  • James M. Essig January 31, 2008, 0:16

    Hi Folks;

    It occurred to me that much discussion goes on in terms of wormhole shortcuts between locations in our ordinary 4-D Einsteinian space-time through higher dimensional space. However, I would like to mention the concept of wormhole shortcuts between mouths in higher dimensional space or space time wherein the wormholes would provide a dramatic short cut in the distance between two locations in the higher dimensional space in paths taken inside these wormholes with respect to the distance between the mouths in the higher dimensional space or space time outside the wormholes.

    One can also imagine wormhole shortcuts between two regions of space time within our ordinary 4-D Einsteinian space-time wherein the wormholes cut through parallel dimensional space time in the parallel histories or “Many Worlds Interpretation” of quantum mechanic sense.

    Imagine if wormholes could be internested wherein one wormhole would be a short cut in the space time through another external wormhole and so on wherein the distance between the mouths of the would be wormholes within interior disposed wormholes with respect to the space time distance between the mouths of the compound wormhole in the space-time exterior to the outermost wormhole would be compounded as one progresses into the compound wormhole series wise to the innermost wormholes.

    If the ratio Di is the ratio of the distance short cut in space or space time through the innermost wormhole with respect to the shortcut through the external space to the inner most wormhole but inside the next innermost wormhole, and similarly the ratio Di + 1 is the ratio of the distance short cut in space or space time through the second innermost wormhole and that of the external space in the second innermost wormhole but internal to the third innermost wormhole and so on for a concentric or nested series of N wormholes, the then formula for total shortcut within the inner most wormhole with respect to the outside of the nested series of wormholes is (Di)(Di + 1)(Di + 2)…(Di + N – 1)(Doutside) where Doutside is the distance between the mouths of the wormhole in the space outside the nested series of wormholes through which the compound wormhole produces a short cut.

    If the lengthening or contraction of space or space time within a wormhole’s interior space; but external to the space or space-time inside an inner disposed wormhole, due to space time curvature or warpage of the external space or space time within the former wormhole is given by a factor of W i +j, and wherein the lengthening or contraction factor as such within the space of the innermost nested wormhole is Wi, then for a compound wormhole of N nested wormholes, the total distance between the mouths of the compound wormhole through the space or space time within the inner most wormhole with respect to that of the space or spacetime external to the compound wormhole is given by the product formula [(Di)(Wi)][(Di + 1)(Wi + 1)][(Di + 2)(Wi + 2)]…[(Di + N – 1)(Wi + N -1)](Doutside). For distance contraction, the Wi + j factor s less than one. For distance lengthening, the Wi + j factor is greater than one. For neither lengthening or contraction of distance, the Wi + j factor is equal to one. Note that for N nested wormholes the value of j in Wi + j goes from 0 to N –1.

    Note that the rate or degree of space time distortion may vary along the path length of the inside of the wormhole but external to any inner disposed wormholes. Also, the path as such within the wormhole may bend and thus have curves along its length. As a result, in order to compute the length of the short cut between the mouths of a compound wormhole, the factors [(Di + j)(Wi + j)] must be computed from the ratios of line integrals of the respective path lengths. These line integrals are integrals of functions of path length curvature, the varying degree of space or space time curvature or distortion in the space or space time within the respective wormhole, and the specific path taken within the interior of the wormholes. Note that paths taken inside along the length of the wormhole, even if they follow the geometric curvilinear shape of the wormhole may vary whether or not the paths are taken inside the wormhole near the inner surface of the wall of the wormhole or through or near the center of the space within the wormhole or through locations in between because of space or space time distortion gradient fluctuations that exist along the length of the wormhole and also with respect to its inner radius.

    It further occurred to me that space or space time locations within the interior of single walled or multi-walled or compound wormholes may be multiply connected to other regions within the wormholes be these regions within the same wormhole, different internal regions of different nested wormholes in a multi-walled wormhole, between locations in wormholes that are widely separated in space or space time be these single walled or multi-walled wormholes, or between regions in wormholes and regions external to any wormholes be these wormholes single walled or multi-walled wormholes.

    Still further, it occurred to me that the volume inside a wormhole might effectively be much greater than the volume of space within the manifold that comprises the outside skin of the wormhole. Moreover, the number of space time dimensions within the wormhole may be greater than, less than or equal to the number of space time dimensions in the space or space time through which the wormhole provides a short cut or through which the wormhole extends.



  • george scaglione January 31, 2008, 15:41

    jim,go to it my friend! the more said about traversable wormholes the better! imho the very thing we NEED to start covering really LARGE distances in space! respectfully your friend george

  • hiro March 12, 2008, 17:46

    It seems like we only have two main methods to travel to the stars: fusion/antimatter&other propulsion and wormholes(ER bridge)/warp-spacetime. When we upgrade the LHC sometimes in the future (hopefully around 2020s) and expand it into VLHC (200 TeV). We may have some small probability to observe the existence of exotic/phantom particles which can be used to stabilize the mouth of a wormhole. Also, the VLHC can serve as a antimatter factory to power the next generation spaceships. Anyway, I think this is the shortest way to travel to extrasolar planets (if we find any) within the next 100 years.

  • george scaglione March 13, 2008, 13:51

    hiro,thank you very very much for that fine input! yes the lhc not to even mention yet the vlhc SURELY hold out very great hope for large scientific advances! maybe even in the next seveal years! hope we will hear from you again soon on this important topic.all the best your friend george

  • James M. Essig March 13, 2008, 17:27

    Hi George;

    Regarding wormholes, it occurred to me that the skin or so-called throats of wormholes might have parallel, orthogonal, or obliquely oriented wormholes embedded within and that the skin of these embedded wormholes might have parallel, orthogonal, or obliquely oriented wormholes within and perhaps so on infinitum. Perhaps novel constructions of the main wormhole throat or skin by a fabric layer or weave of this type could be used to hold open the wormhole for indefinate periods of time. It would seem that the more wormholes out of which the fabric would be constructed and/or the greater the number of levels of sub-wormholes or sub-scale structures of the weave, the more stable the wormhole would be as a result of greater reinforcement against collapse.

    Now it has often occured to me that this universe might simply be a particle within a larger universe, which might be a particle within a larger universe which might be a particle within a larger universe on infinitum. Likewise, at some sub-quantum level, particles within our universe might be universes which contain particles which are whole universes which contain particles which are whole universes on infinitum.

    The same thinking I apply to the entire multiverse or fractal verse such as that supposedly existing in the theory of chaotic inflation. Our whole multiverse or fractal verse would be akin or actually be but a particle within another universe or fractal verse which would simply be a particle within another multiverse or fractal verse on infinitum. Likewise, every particle within our univese might contain a fractal verse which might contain particles as fractalverses or multiverses on infinitum.

    Now this thinking goes beyond the concept of quantized space at the Planck distance level, but perhaps even if space is quantized at the Planck scale of about 10 EXP – 35 meters, perhaps there is a finer structure at some sub-Planck level followed by a smaller structure yet perhaps on infinitum.

    Since we geometrically divide space into points of zero dimension, and assume that matter is extended, perhaps we have overlooked something such as such sub-Planck scale structures to which we currently have no casual communication with. My thinking is that if things such as our universe can be infinitely big or the multiverse can be infinitely large, why cannot things be infinitely small through symmetry.

    Perhaps wormholes coupled with spatial temporal contraction or expansion technologies coupled with mattergy reduction or increasing technologies and physical laws tranforming technologies could enable us to travel into these contracted or expanded realms.

    I will have more to say about size symmetries in a few hours.


    Your Friend Jim

  • James M. Essig March 14, 2008, 3:51

    Hi George and Hiro and all other Folks;

    Regarding symmetry in extendedness of abstract mathematical space, just as we as a culture have developed the concept of infinitely extended space, the universe within a universe within a universe concept (which I believed originated within ancient China at least in terms of at least one of its forms), the multiverse or fractalverse etc., suppose we were to imagine that mathematical size has absolutely no boundary at the other end of the spectrum, associated with some sort of exceedingly bazaar concept of a number wherein the absolute value of this number would be less than zero but not negative. Accordingly, one could formulate the lexocographical statement … 0((- Aleph Aleph 1)*) is to … 0((- Aleph 1)*) is to … is to 0(-1*) as 0(-1*) is to 0(as we know it) as 0(as we know it) is to Aleph 1 as Aleph 1 is to … Aleph Aleph 0 … . I note briefly that Aleph 0 is accordingly the number of counting numbers, Aleph 1 is the number of real numbers which are accordingly more numerous than the counting numbers, etc. all the way up to the undefinably large Aleph which I presume would be undefinably beyond Aleph Aleph 0. This nebulous ultimate Aleph value was referred to as Omega by the great mathematician Georg Cantor.

    One might presumably form the ratios using mathematical abstractions such as 1/(Aleph 1), [1/(Aleph 1)]/(Aleph 1), [[1/(Aleph 1)]/(Aleph 1)]/(Aleph 1), … , in an absolutely unending series.

    One might presumably form the ratios using mathematical abstractions such as 0(-1*)/(Aleph 1), [(0(-1*))/(Aleph 1)]/(Aleph 1), [[(0(-1*))/(Aleph 1)]/(Aleph 1)]/(Aleph 1), … , in an absolutely unending series.

    One might presumably form the series of ratios using all of the other combinations of Cardinalities or Alephs in mathematical abstractions including as a non-limiting example, 0((- Aleph Aleph 1)*) /(Aleph Aleph 1), [0((- Aleph Aleph 1)*) /(Aleph Aleph 1)]/(Aleph Aleph 1), [[0((- Aleph Aleph 1)*) /(Aleph Aleph 1)]/(Aleph Aleph 1)]/(Aleph Aleph 1), … , in an absolutely unending series.

    One can even frame the concept 0(-Omega*)/(Omega), [(0(-Omega*))/(Omega)]/Omega, [[(0(-Omega*))/(Omega)]/(Omega)]/Omega, …, on ward ho in an absolutely unending series.

    This is just the beginning. If I can describe abstractly the concepts above in a few short paragraphs, just imagine what could be symbolically defined on a symbol storage writting medium of infinite dimensional extent in infinite dimensions wherein the individual symbol characters would be point-like in size and of zero dimensional extent. And this is just the beginning. …

    Now one might formulate an even more bazaar concept such as a number of dimensions wherein the absolute value of the number of dimensions is less than zero but not negative. One might symbolically represent the order of the number of these abstract spatial dimension by the numbers …, 0(-Omega*), …, 0((- Aleph Aleph 1)*), … ,0((- Aleph 1)*), … ,0(-1*), …, 0.

    One might even go as far as forming the lexocographical concept of an abstract space having a negative integer, negative rational, negative irrational, or negative real number of dimensions wherein the number of dimensions would be is descending order from zero dimensions as follows: 0, …, -1, … , -2, … , – Aleph 0, – Aleph 1, – Aleph 2, … , – Aleph Aleph 0, – Aleph Aleph 1, – Aleph Aleph 2, … , – Omega, … , On Ward HO! into an eternally never ending series.

    Now the volume of a unit element of such space or a dimensional subset thereof might be negative wherein the so-called width of such a volume for lack of a better term could be any value within this series 0, …, -1, …, -2, …, – Aleph 1, -Aleph 2, …, -Aleph Aleph 0, -Aleph Aleph 1, …, – Omega, … On Ward HO! into an eternally unending series.

    The readership may at this point think, “My GOD! Has Jim lost it?”. I would have to say, “maybe” with the ceveat that any concept that can be symbolically, logically, and/or lexocographically formulated abstractly is candidate material on which mankind can further its art of knowing whether the field of endeaver is physics, cosmology, psychology, sociology, math, religion, theology, philosophy, and the list goes on.

    Remember, regarding physics, we were once aware of only matter until the discovery of the positron around 1930 which the readership knows is an anti-electron. Then we formulated the concept of negative mass or megative mass-energy. We formulated an additional concept of symmetry referred to as super-symmetry. We have recently come up with the concept of Dark Energy. We went from the very useful but crude contimuum mechanics of the absolute-time-reference-frame based Newtonian Mechanics to Special and General Relativity and then on to Quantum Mechanics and Quantum indeterminancy. We went from crude Alchemy in the middle ages to atomic theory, to the theory and discovery of quarks as the constituents of protons and neutrons. We went from the formulation of the Newtonian Laws of Gravity, to Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Theory Equations, to General Relativity as a discription of space time, to quantum theory and the particle-wave duality of massive particles and mass-less particles, to the discovery of the strong and weak nuclear forces, from quantum field theory to relativistic quantum field theory, to Gauge Theories, the electroweak unification for which the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded, to Grand Unified Field Theory, to so-called Theories of everything, from the 4-D spacetime unification of Special and General Relativity to 26-D bosonic string theory, 11-D and 10-D later versions of string theory, and now p-brane theory wherein there may accordingly exist an infinite number of dimensions in some of its formulations, from the primitive system of Celestial Spheres as a discription of the cosmos to the observation of the expansion of the universe, to ithe Big Bang Theory, to the Theory of Inflation, to the Theory of Chaotic Inflation according to which there are innumerable universes being formed at every instant in every inflated universe in a never eneding process and even the notion that their may by innumerable fractal verses or multiverses, and the list of our intellectual accomplishments goes on and on.

    I presume that since there is such a thing as infinite perfect knowledge, we well never stop learning and that this learning will envolve any and all fields of endeaver. Thus, I make the bold conjectures in mathematics as described above and will state that such conjectures are a mere twitching of a foot on a stepping stone into eternity. I may have additional ideas regarding dimensionality in the comming days as I figure out where on Tau Zero to put them.

    Let us be bold in our conjecture and then we may go where no man has gone before. Let us Dream the Dream of Centauri Dreams and in the spirit of Tau Zero go onward “To The Stars”. To this end, any thoughts about space, abstract space, real physical space, wormholes, spacetime warps, spacetime multiple connectivity, has merit and purpose to futher mankinds great eternal voyage into the eternal unkown.

    The eternal blackness of space at some level beckons us all. This wonderment, even in the profound questions ask by little children about the stars, the Moon and the Sun, is shared by all of us regardless of our level of academic intellegence, our occupation, our vocation, our physical strength or lack thereof, regardless of our cultural, religious, ethnic background, or sexual orientation or gender: it is part of what makes us human. We are all open to and yearn for the infinite. I am sure that this is true even for the most cold hearted terrorists, those on the verge of suicide for which I believe GOD shows great mercy regardless of whether or not they follow through with the act, or the dejectedness, hopelessness, and saddness to the point of absolute numbness of death row inmates about to be executed. At some level, there is that hope that things can be better in the end and thus as we all struggle with the loss of loved ones, the fear of terrorism, and ultimately come to grips with our own mortality, take Heart, for we have just begun to lift our foot from the first stepping stone in eternity.

    To those of you who have small children or young grandchildren or nieces and nephews, if and when they ever ask you questions like “Why do you think and write about such stuff on that website Tau Zero” while outdoors on a clear starry night, tell them to look up at the night sky and ask them “Do you ever wonder how big it is and what is up there?” When they reply in the affirmative, tell the children “You are what this is all about!”.



  • george scaglione March 14, 2008, 8:41

    jim,hiro,everybody….FANTASTIC COMMENTS, great stuff!! i really like that concept of a complex system of worm holes! but unfortunately i fear that building something like that might just be in the distant future but you never know… i have recently taken a good look at dr michio kaku’s latest book “the physics of the impossible” one of the main points is that,just because something is impossible today does not mean that it will be impossible tomorrow” !!! the world wide web in say 1900 would have been heavy science fiction! and as to a universe within a universe within a universe,i had heard that theory before,lol,in one of the original outer limits episodes i think first of all of all places! also i have the series cosmos on dvd and i know carl sagan mentions the idea with great reverence somewhere in there too!!! as i always say as regards this theory guys : talk about infinite space! this makes 4 light years or so to a place like alpha centauri seem like an inch by comparisson.(!) for all practical purposes we are truly talking about the INFINITE!!! guess that is about all for now except to say,jim,i hope we hear more of your ideas soon.i’ll be keeping an eye out! thanks everybody,your friend george

  • hiro March 24, 2008, 17:44

    The algebraic structure of geometric flows in two dimensions by Ioannis Bakas (hep–th/0507284).

    If we are really holograms from the holographic principle, then we can use some techniques in informational geometry to transport physical forms across space-time like informational waves. Also, all the parabolic geometric flows have infinite speed. Hopefully, we can extract this piece of information for FTL research sometimes in the future.

  • Alonso Carrasset March 29, 2008, 7:26

    hello, i am currently constructing a research project for a my university assignment and i could realy use some information on wormhole theories. thanks.

  • george scaglione March 29, 2008, 13:01

    alonso…it is so good to see that you are looking into these ideas! the more of us that do the closer these things will come.as for guiding you,well, i am sure that if you google this and related topics you will soon find that you will have a wealth of related information at your finger tips! basically i feel that that is the way in which i would approach it.that and what ever i can pick up of the knowledge posted here by my good friends.please keep me (us) posted as to what you might be able to find out and how your project is going. i know it would be easier for me (again us) to comment more on specific concepts than just a wide open ended question…which by the way i only hope that i have been able to help you with in some small way. very respectfully your friend george

  • Administrator March 29, 2008, 13:25

    Alonso, I would begin with the Wikipedia entry on wormholes because it contains, in addition to a lot of background information, citations for some major papers in the field:


    You can also use the search function here to find articles that look at wormholes on Centauri Dreams. Kip Thorne’s book Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein’s Outrageous Legacy should also be on your short list:


  • george scaglione March 30, 2008, 11:23

    alonso,paul, took my own advice and googled the subject.soon found myself knee deep in pertanent information! ps paul thanks for the tip on the book by dr thorne had not been aware! and again alonso,if your reading this,best of luck! thanks again to both of you,your friend george

  • James M. Essig July 9, 2008, 16:30

    Hi George;

    I was motivated to post this comment after our online discussion about faster than light travel in ordinary space.

    One idea involves building a very long tube composed of highly conducting or super conducting walls, perhaps as a cosmic engineering project, perhaps even the length of the radius of the observable universe. Such a tube would filter out all or nearly all zero point electromagnetic waves with a wavelength such that the nodes of the standing waves formed therein would fall on the inner wall of the tube. As a result, one or both of the magnet permeability, Mu, and the electric permitivity Epsilon, of the space within the tube would become smaller. Note that the speed of light in a vacuum can be calculated from the formula C = 1/{[(Mu)(Epsilon)] EXP (1/2)}. Thus, the smaller the values of the product of Mu and Epsilon, the greater the square root of the inverse product of Mu and Epsilon, and thus the greater the value of C.

    Now attempts are being made or will be made according to some on line literature I have read to measure the speed of light in an evacuated chamber or regions bounded by Casimar plates that are separated by a short distance. This will be an attempt to determine if C within these cavities with inner walls being electrically conductive will cause the speed of light to be greater inside than it would be in the free vacuum of outer space.

    One consequence of such an increased light speed with respect to the speed of light outside such a container is the possibility of the backward time travel of the beam relative to the point in time at which the beam first enters the cavity. More likely is that the beam will not travel back in time, but rather will progress down the tube more quickly with respect to Earth stationary reference frame time in part because of an effect similar to backward time travel except not as extreme as backward time travel. Thus there may be two effects of increased speed that act together to increase the velocity of the beam of light through the Casimar tube; the first effect being an increase in the value of C = 1/{[(Mu)(Epsilon)] EXP (1/2)}. and the second effect being the forward reduction in time with respect to an Earth stationary reference frame of the time the beam takes to travel down the tube. Thus, the travel time of the beam may be a function of 1/{[(Mu)(Epsilon)] EXP (1/2)} and beam travel time shrinkage due to superluminal travel time of the light beam with respect to that of the exterior of the cavity.


    Your Friend Jim

  • James M. Essig July 9, 2008, 20:28

    Hi Folks;

    As a further consideration, if the value of (Mu)(Epsilon) within a region of space could be reduced to zero, then the speed of light in that space would equal 1/0 or infinity. I would not be surprised if extreme increases in the velocity of light would lead to actual backward time travel. However, with the proposed experiments, the increase in C with respect to that of free space is expected to be so small that it probably will be hard to measure.

    On the other hand, if a civilization was to construct a billion light year long tube made of extremely thin and highly conducting to superconducting membranous, or porous membranous materials for the purpose of reducing the amount of material required to build the tube with respect to tubes made of non-membranous or rigid materials, I get the sense that one might be able to reach a velocity of just below the speed of light within the tube but higher than the speed of light outside the tube in free interstellar or intergalactic space. The gamma factors of the sub-C craft inside the tube would be extremely high, but because the craft would have accelerated inertially in the tube to a sub-C velocity inside the tube but a superluminal velocity outside the tube, backward time travel of the craft as it traveled down the tube with respect to the background interstellar medium and also that of Earth might indeed be possible. The effect might be for those on Earth or in space outside the tube essentially the occurrence of faster than instantaneously space travel. In instantaneous space travel, you arrive at your destination at the same time you leave for the destination, or at least and infinitesimal differential time interval into the future. With backward time travel at just over the value of C outside the tube, you arrive at your destination before you left, thus taking a negative amount of time to travel down the tube. If the craft was traveling just a tiny amount faster than C in free space, the craft would in effect travel instantaneously without the problem of backward time travel. It might be possible to pick a velocity for the craft so that it arrives within one Planck time unit into the past at the other end of the tube. Because of the uncertainly in time resolution at the Planck time level and below, there might be no risk of changing the present or the future by such backward time travel because the distance of backward time travel would be non-resolvable or non-observably small.



  • James M. Essig July 10, 2008, 22:49

    Hi Folks;

    Yet another idea occurred to me regarding the Tajmar experiments and what I will call Casimar Superluminal Travel Tubes for lack of a better phrase.

    The idea is very simple. If the electro-gravtic effect that seems to be occurring in Tajmar experiments is real, then perhaps such an effect or similar effects can be used to reduce the inertial mass of a transport traveling down the Casimar tube wherein extreme gamma factors can be reached such that inertial acceleration to speeds values just short of C within the tube but just slightly higher than C outside the tube can be obtained possibly leading to the highly conjectural quicker than instantaneous travel effect discussed in my two postings above.

    Note that inertial mass reduction might allow the transports or the human body to achieve velocities just under C while requiring a much reduced terminal kinetic energy.

    Another possibility is that the space craft and/or person’s bodies can be broken down into monochromatic beams of neutrinos which are then beamed down the linear Casimar tube at a velocity just under C within the tube but just over C outside the tube. The broken down transport or human or ETI body could then be reintegrated at the other end of the tube or at a location within the tube thus perhaps effecting quicker than instantaneous travel for the transported craft or person.



  • JOE THOMPSON September 7, 2008, 22:02

    I prefer that Wormhole be used,if possable to travel by star ship and even small passengers,like in the series Stargate SG-1.Despite the popularity of Star Trek,I really don’t mater scranbling like the Star Trek Transporters is possable.Even if,it were,the amount of enegy,difficulty and such would far to complicated to design and use.If humanity discover wormholes and warp gates exist,for star ships,you know the Star Trek Transporter will use something other dematerialization of matter,when shuttling a star ship or person,into a wormhole will be far more conveinant.

  • ljk September 15, 2008, 2:16

    Traversable wormholes from surgically modified Schwarzschild spacetimes

    Authors: Matt Visser (Victoria University of Wellington)

    (Submitted on 4 Sep 2008)

    Abstract: In this paper I present a new class of traversable wormholes. This is done by surgically grafting two Schwarzschild spacetimes together in such a way that no event horizon is permitted to form. This surgery concentrates a non–zero stress–energy on the boundary layer between the two asymptotically flat regions.

    I shall investigate this stress–energy in detail using the “junction condition” formalism. A feature of the present analysis is that this class of traversable wormholes is sufficiently simple for a (partial) dynamical stability analysis to be carried out. The stability analysis places constraints on the equation of state of the exotic matter that comprises the throat of the wormhole.

    Comments: Pre-arXiv article from 1989; 12 pages, no figures. (Uploaded to arXiv to help researchers with limited library facilities.)

    Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)

    Journal reference: Nuclear Physics B328 (1989) 203-212

    DOI: 10.1016/0550-3213(89)90100-4

    Report number: LA-UR-89-244

    Cite as: arXiv:0809.0927v1 [gr-qc]

    Submission history

    From: Matt Visser [view email]

    [v1] Thu, 4 Sep 2008 22:35:09 GMT (11kb)


  • ljk March 28, 2009, 13:03

    Theoretical construction of stable traversable wormholes

    Authors: Peter K.F. Kuhfittig

    (Submitted on 19 Mar 2009)

    Abstract: It is shown in this paper that it is possible, at least in principle, to construct a traversable wormhole that is stable to linearized radial perturbations by specifying relatively simple conditions on the shape and redshift functions.

    Comments: 4 pages; 1 figure

    Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)

    Cite as: arXiv:0903.3423v1 [gr-qc]

    Submission history

    From: Peter Kuhfittig K.F. [view email]

    [v1] Thu, 19 Mar 2009 20:57:27 GMT (10kb)


  • curious reader April 19, 2009, 21:48

    It seems that the understanding of a worm hole is that it has the same physics as our planes of spacetime. it may or may not. but how could we know any effects upon us, before opening one. What if the plane folds back upon itself with the opening in the same spot as the exit … maybe a mobius/klein worm hole? (makes your intrails your extrails) Also what about any other ”dimentions” being distorted by flexing our space/time line or breaking of cosmic membranes. Seems like to many assumptions are being made, but what do I know?

  • curious reader April 19, 2009, 23:00

    You could in
    Theory build a wormhole small in scale, as electron scale, with a +1,+2, or +3 spin to convert electron matter into positron matter. Or a electromagnitic wave into its anti wave, reverse frequency, or a ” gravity” partical to an ” antigravity” one. Basically making a spacetimes mirror. A klien wormhole. A singularity mirror. Just reflects back and anilates itself. Talk about a reflector dish.

  • sczr April 16, 2010, 13:07

    Einstein’s theory of special relativity has some keen point on creating transversable wormholes. Being just a student, i am just studying the subject, but as an example of the theory, I give you this: if you were in the back seat of a car going 60 mph. down the highway, and you have a small object in your hand and throw it up to the front at 10 mph. to a person outside the car, it would seem as though the object was traveling 70 mph. In the car the object would seem to be traveling at 10 mph. The theory suggests that the faster an object moves the slower time passes compared to a non moving observer. The reason that traverable wormholes can be acheived is because there is a cut in time and space itself. The faster the object is moving, time would move slower creating a reverse effect once reaching the speed of light. Changing the route of the curve of time which would create a parallel universe, and would end in disaster.


    a 6th grader

  • myself June 8, 2010, 12:48

    Emitting solitonized laser beams to boost the negative energy density of squeezed regions of the vacuum

  • Saint May 18, 2011, 11:28

    Creating a gate you will need a point of reference to pass to, so you will I guess either have someone on the other side or have another gate.
    How do you create the wormhole and then fold it back on itself as you pass through it. Could hypersonic engines do this type of work of creating wormholes and then would you somehow reverse the energy behind you to shut it down. Has a mini wormhole ever been produced.

  • Daniel R Colgan December 5, 2011, 10:33

    I had the understanding that an “Actual Pinpoint Wormhole” had actually been created but have been unable to find as such on the net, if true it would then be reasonable to use a large magnetic ring (Like In Stargate) to stabalise and expand the end of the wormhole by pulsing energy, or a magnetic field down the wormhole it would open the whole wormhole (Just Like Putting On A Sock) setting the location of the other end would require quantum string physics to evolve further!
    Once a stable wormhole was created a second ring would be transported through the wormhole to the end location, using quantum string physics as the lock on technology a returning wormhole could then exist!
    Daniel R Colgan

  • Tolga June 14, 2012, 17:04

    I just had an idea about timetravel and parallel worlds…
    In quantum physics theory , everytime you do something like saying “Yes” or “No” you create another parallel world where you do the opposite , if that’s true , then there is no possibility of timetravel because everything you do changes something so there wouldn’t be a stable future and you would get lost in the spacetime…Well that’s my theory – Sincerely a 14 years old boy…

  • Ryan October 12, 2012, 23:43

    Maybe wormholes exist already throughout the universe? Making it not a matter of creating a wormhole, but finding one to harness.

  • Vincent November 24, 2012, 3:48

    I see that some folks here mix their terms – black hole and worm hole. Black holes are not holes at all, they are solid objects that were just termed wrong. As most of you know they are simply impossibly compressed objects to the point where their gravity traps even photons and thus they appear black, (like a hole), though they are not. Worm holes on the other hand are a different “animal” altogether, which so far seem to exist only in theory, vs black holes which are proven to exist and previously “observed”. So lets keep things straight! :-)

  • Dreamer December 17, 2012, 17:36

    I think if there were an abundance of wormholes or lets just say “some” that aliens would have found us or there would be evidence i.e. alien ship parts, etc. Wormholes in my opinion are not possible because they go against the laws of nature. The universe has no use for them. We are the ones that need them because we want to travel to the stars. Its like the human body. There are anti-bodies because the body needs them to protect itself from germs. The universe does not need wormholes.