Into the Wormhole

Can we find and actually traverse a wormhole? Crowlspace looks at the possibilities and links to a paper by Nikolai Kardashev that we’ll be examining here in the next week or so. A snippet:

Relativity gives no clear indication of where wormholes end. They might link to other places (and times) in our Universe or in other Universes. When the worm-ways of the Universe are finally explored there will be a whole new breed of adventurers required to travel to their far-ends, risking being lost in a wholly other Universe and time. After hardy explorers have mapped the wormhole network of the Universe what will happen then?

A provocative scenario indeed! Read the whole thing here.

Comments on this entry are closed.

• Adam February 3, 2007, 20:21

Hi Paul

Nice use of dramatic tension. What do you think of Kurzweil’s vision?

• Kurt9 February 3, 2007, 23:44

If wormholes are possible (GR does not forbid them, but they seem like fantasy to me), would it not be more fruitful to try to make them rather than try to find one somewhere out in space?

• Adam February 4, 2007, 1:26

Hi Kurt9

Wormholes suffer from the liability that to make one (well you need at least two) means also needing to transport it from where you are to where you want to be, but at sublight speeds. Takes a bit of energy to do so. Finding ready-made wormholes, thanks to the inflationary epoch, is at least as sensible, if you’re wanting to travel some serious distances.

• george scaglione February 4, 2007, 12:04

yeah i know adam.very nice if ready made wormholes exist…but if they are hundreds or thousands or even millions of light years distant?! then what’s the point!! respectfully george

• Administrator February 5, 2007, 13:58

Adam, re Kurzweil, I notice that Vernor Vinge is going to be giving a talk on February 15 entitled “What If the Singularity Does NOT Happen?” Wish I could be in San Francisco for that one. I have no problem one way or another with the idea of a Singularity. But I do draw back from extrapolating what happens *after* a Singularity, and I’m pretty skeptical about cosmos-spanning visions.

The Long Now Foundation’s seminars are always interesting, and at a recent one, Phillip Tetlock talked about his studies of political forecasting. He likes to use the Greek poet Archilochus in making his point (as did Isaiah Berlin): “The fox knows many things; the hedgehog one great thing.” The idea being that people with one grand theory are sometimes right but make many mistaken forecasts along the way (hedgehogs). While those who try to build their views on actual events sometimes pick up snippets of the grand ideas and run with them, but are usually too skeptical to try to fit them into overreaching schemes (foxes).

Count me among the foxes.

• Adam February 6, 2007, 1:02

Hi George & Paul

George, hopefully we’ll find a few just a bit closer than the nearest AGN.

Paul, I tend to agree. Perhaps I have too much trouble imagining a Singularity. This is not to say I don’t think there will be, at some point, a transition to a Post-Human society, but I think human life will continue because we want it to – and hopefully our Mind Children won’t resent us for being us. Greg Egan’s take on this, as illustrated in several of his books, is people will still be people, but have more options on how (and if) they’ll be embodied, what clock-speed they’ll live by, and so forth. Choice expansion, not world-reworking/world-wrecking revolution, will be the Post-Human future.

Or so I hope. Hopefully our technological descendents will be better than us, and hopefully when we get the option of an upgrade, we can decline. Unlike the poor old Cybermen in the new “Doctor Who” – emotionless because of the pain inherent in becoming a cyborg.

• ljk February 6, 2007, 12:43

General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, abstract
gr-qc/0610123

From: Ernesto F. Eiroa [view email]

Date (v1): Wed, 25 Oct 2006 19:18:25 GMT (8kb)

Date (revised v2): Thu, 21 Dec 2006 18:13:09 GMT (8kb)

Thin-shell wormholes associated with global cosmic strings

Authors: Cecilia Bejarano, Ernesto F. Eiroa, Claudio Simeone

Comments: 7 pages; v2: minor changes. Accepted for publication in Physical Review D

Journal-ref: Phys.Rev. D75 (2007) 027501

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.75.027501

In this article we construct cylindrical thin-shell wormholes in the context of global cosmic strings. We study the stability of static configurations under perturbations preserving the symmetry and we find that the throat tends to collapse or expand, depending only on the direction of the velocity perturbation.

http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0610123

• ljk April 16, 2007, 14:49

Wormholes in the accelerating universe

Authors: Pedro F Gonzalez-Diaz, Prado Martin-Moruno (IMAFF, CSIC)
(Submitted on 13 Apr 2007)

Abstract: We discuss different arguments that have been raised against the viability of the big trip process, reaching the conclusions that this process can actually occur by accretion of phantom energy onto the wormholes and that it is stable and might occur in the global context of a multiverse model. We finally argue that the big trip does not contradict any holographic bounds on entropy and information.

2 pages, LaTex, to appear in the Proceedings of the 11th Marcel Grossmann Conference, 2006

Subjects:

Astrophysics (astro-ph)

Report number:

IMAFF-RCA-05-07

Cite as:

arXiv:0704.1731v1 [astro-ph]

Submission history

From: Pedro Gonzalez-Diaz [view email]

[v1] Fri, 13 Apr 2007 10:38:21 GMT (4kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0704.1731

• ljk April 25, 2007, 11:29

Wormholes as Black Hole Foils

Authors: Thibault Damour, Sergey N. Solodukhin

(Submitted on 20 Apr 2007)

Abstract: We study to what extent wormholes can mimic the observational features of black holes. It is surprisingly found that many features that could be thought of as “characteristic” of a black hole (endowed with an event horizon) can be closely mimicked by a globally static wormhole, having no event horizon. This is the case for: the apparently irreversible accretion of matter down a hole, no-hair properties, quasi-normal-mode ringing, and even the dissipative properties of black hole horizons, such as a finite surface resistivity equal to 377 Ohms. The only way to distinguish the two geometries on an observationally reasonable time scale would be through the detection of Hawking’s radiation, which is, however, too weak to be of practical relevance for astrophysical black holes. We point out the existence of an interesting spectrum of quantum microstates trapped in the throat of a wormhole which could be relevant for storing the information “lost” during a gravitational collapse.

13 pages, no figures, Latex

Subjects:

General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); Astrophysics (astro-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th)

Report number:

IHES/P/07/19

Cite as:

arXiv:0704.2667v1 [gr-qc]

Submission history

From: Sergey Solodukhin N. [view email]

[v1] Fri, 20 Apr 2007 08:17:44 GMT (16kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0704.2667

• ljk April 30, 2007, 9:26

Could black holes be portals to other universes?

NewScientist.com news service Apr. 27, 2007

*************************

The objects scientists think are
locales, a new study…

http://www.kurzweilai.net/email/newsRedirect.html?newsID=6733&m=25748

• ljk May 10, 2007, 9:14

No Way Back: Maximizing survival time below the Schwarzschild event horizon

Authors: Geraint F. Lewis, Juliana Kwan

(Submitted on 8 May 2007)

Abstract: It has long been known that once you cross the event horizon of a black hole, your destiny lies at the central singularity, irrespective of what you do. Furthermore, your demise will occur in a finite amount of proper time. In this paper, the use of rockets in extending the amount of time before the collision with the central singularity is examined. In general, the use of such rockets can increase your remaining time, but only up to a maximum value; this is at odds with the “more you struggle, the less time you have” statement that is sometimes discussed in relation to black holes. The derived equations are simple to solve numerically and the framework can be employed as a teaching tool for general relativity.

7-pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in the Proceedings of the Astronomical Society of Australia

Subjects:

Physics Education (physics.ed-ph); Astrophysics (astro-ph); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)

Report number:

GFL-001

Cite as:

arXiv:0705.1029v1 [physics.ed-ph]

Submission history

From: Geraint F. Lewis [view email]

[v1] Tue, 8 May 2007 04:16:19 GMT (78kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0705.1029

• ljk May 17, 2007, 14:54

Black Holes, Wormholes, and Gravitational Collapse

Authors: Seungjoon Hyun, Jaehoon Jeong, Wontae Kim, John J. Oh

(Submitted on 16 May 2007)

Abstract: We study a possibility of the dynamical formation of traversable wormholes from gravitationally collapsing {\it exotic} matter clouds. For generic metric ansatz of exterior spacetimes, a crucial constraint that black holes and wormholes should satisfy is obtained through the junction conditions on the edge. As a result, it is shown that the wormhole geometry cannot be formed by following the usual Oppenheimer-Snyder type gravitational collapse of the {\it exotic} matter. Instead, it is also shown that the wormhole geometry immediately appears once the {\it exotic} matter is taken into account.

LaTeX, 11 pages, 1 figure

Subjects:

General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); Astrophysics (astro-ph); High Energy Physics –
Theory (hep-th)

Cite as:

arXiv:0705.2301v1 [gr-qc]

Submission history

From: John J. Oh [view email]

[v1] Wed, 16 May 2007 09:00:32 GMT (55kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0705.2301

• ljk June 29, 2007, 12:41

Self sustained phantom wormholes in semi-classical gravity

Authors: Remo Garattini, Francisco S. N. Lobo

(Submitted on 2 Jan 2007 (v1), last revised 28 Jun 2007 (this version, v2))

Abstract: A possible candidate for the late time accelerated expanding Universe is phantom energy, which possesses rather bizarre properties, such as the prediction of a Big Rip singularity and the violation of the null energy condition. The latter is a fundamental ingredient of traversable wormholes, and it has been shown that phantom energy may indeed sustain these exotic geometries.

Inspired by the evolving dark energy parameter crossing the phantom divide, we consider in this work a varying equation of state parameter dependent on the radial coordinate, i.e., $\omega(r)=p(r)/\rho(r)$. We shall impose that phantom energy is concentrated in the neighborhood of the throat, to ensure the flaring out condition, and several models are analyzed. We shall also consider the possibility that these phantom wormholes be sustained by their own quantum fluctuations. The energy density of the graviton one loop contribution to a classical energy in a phantom wormhole background and the finite one loop energy density are considered as a self-consistent source for these wormhole geometries.

The latter semi-classical approach prohibits solutions with a constant equation of state parameter, which further motivates the imposition of a radial dependent parameter, $\omega(r)$, and only permits solutions with a steep positive slope proportional to the radial derivative of the equation of state parameter, evaluated at the throat. The size of the wormhole throat as a function of the relevant parameters is also explored.

Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); Astrophysics (astro-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th)

Journal reference: Class.Quant.Grav. 24 (2007) 2401-2413

DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/24/9/016

Cite as: arXiv:gr-qc/0701020v2

Submission history

From: Remo Garattini [view email]

[v1] Tue, 2 Jan 2007 16:57:51 GMT (59kb)

[v2] Thu, 28 Jun 2007 15:02:25 GMT (61kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0701020

• ljk July 10, 2007, 12:07

Dark Matter from a gas of wormholes

Authors: A.A. Kirillov, E.P. Savelova

(Submitted on 7 Jul 2007)

Abstract: We consider a simplistic model of spacetime foam (a gas of wormholes) and explicitly demonstrate the origin of the topological bias. In particular, we demonstrate how the gas of wormholes generates dark matter.

Subjects: Astrophysics (astro-ph)

Cite as: arXiv:0707.1081v1 [astro-ph]

Submission history

From: Alex Kirillov [view email]

[v1] Sat, 7 Jul 2007 10:39:11 GMT (4kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.1081

• ljk July 24, 2007, 10:44

Traversable wormholes: minimum violation of null energy condition revisited

Authors: O. B. Zaslavskii

(Submitted on 10 Jul 2007)

Abstract: It was argued in literature that traversable wormholes can exist with arbitrarily small violation of null energy conditions. We show that if the amount of exotic material near the wormhole throat tends to zero, either this leads to a horn instead of a wormhole or the throat approaches the horizon in such a way that infnitely large stresses develop on the throat.

Comments: 12 pages. To appear in PRD

Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); Astrophysics (astro-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th)

Cite as: arXiv:0707.1487v1 [gr-qc]

Submission history

From: Oleg Zaslavskii [view email]

[v1] Tue, 10 Jul 2007 16:14:32 GMT (11kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.1487

• george scaglione July 24, 2007, 13:01

ljk thank you very much for posting the above i don’t see how it can be other than useful ; however having now said that i’ll be big about it and admit that i did not get your point and that i’d apreciate clarification very much ! seems as though you are saying that the author thinks that traversable worm holes might not be as difficult as some think.good news indeed if correct. your friend george

• ljk August 15, 2007, 12:09

arXiv:0708.1537 (*cross-listing*)

Date: Sat, 11 Aug 2007 09:20:53 GMT (33kb)

Title: Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

Authors: Christian G. Boehmer, Tiberiu Harko, Francisco S. N. Lobo

Categories: gr-qc astro-ph hep-th

Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under
the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a
{\it non-static} conformal symmetry, which presents a more
systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions.

In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering
choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state
relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and
various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of
solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is
restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cut-off of the stress-energy
tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact
solutions are also found.

Using the “volume integral quantifier,” it is found that the conformally
symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be
constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy
condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration
traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry,
specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also
deduced.

• ljk September 25, 2007, 11:46

Perihelion precession and deflection of light in gravitational field of wormholes

Authors: V. Strokov, S. Repin

(Submitted on 20 Sep 2007)

Abstract: Quite exotic relativistic objects known as wormholes are hypothetical candidates for central machine of active galactic nuclei as well as black holes. We find the magnitude of the perihelion precession and the deflection of light in gravitational field of a wormhole and compare them with those for a black hole. The impact parameter is taken to be much larger than the wormhole throat size. We show that the relative difference between results for a black hole and a wormhole may be significant and amount to tens of percent.

Comments: 8 pages, no figures, submitted to Grav. and Cosm

Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); Astrophysics (astro-ph)

Cite as: arXiv:0709.3286v1 [gr-qc]

Submission history

From: Vladimir Strokov N. [view email]

[v1] Thu, 20 Sep 2007 19:43:06 GMT (8kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0709.3286

• ljk October 15, 2007, 10:19

‘Electromagnetic Wormhole’ Possible with Invisibility Technology

PhysOrg.com October 12, 2007

*************************

University of Rochester researchers
have developed cloaking technology
that opens the possibility of
building a sort of invisible tunnel
between two points in space.

http://www.kurzweilai.net/email/newsRedirect.html?newsID=7369&m=25748

• ljk November 19, 2007, 0:47

Wormholes could be made from exotic materials

Theoretical device could create a magnetic monopole

http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/31770

• ljk December 11, 2007, 10:37

arXiv:0710.2041 (*cross-listing*)

Date: Wed, 10 Oct 2007 15:27:45 GMT (137kb)

Date (revised v2): Thu, 11 Oct 2007 13:36:28 GMT (137kb)

Title: Thin-shell wormholes supported by ordinary matter in
Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet gravity

Authors: Martin Richarte, Claudio Simeone

Categories: gr-qc astro-ph hep-th

Comments: Corrected typos; 7 pages, 2 figures; published
in Physical Review D

Journal-ref: Phys. Rev. D 76, 087502 (2007)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.087502

The generalized Darmois–Israel formalism for Einstein–
Gauss–Bonnet theory is applied to construct thin-shell
Lorentzian wormholes with spherical symmetry. We calculate
the energy localized on the shell, and we find that for certain
values of the parameters wormholes could be supported by
matter not violating the energy conditions.

http://arxiv.org/abs/0710.2041 , 137kb

• ljk December 18, 2007, 10:43

Passage of Photons Through Wormholes and the Influence of Rotation on the Amount of Phantom Matter around Them

Authors: Alexander Shatskiy

(Submitted on 16 Dec 2007)

Abstract: Static (spherically symmetrical) and stationary solutions for wormholes are considered. The main characteristics of electromagnetic radiation passing through a wormhole are found. These properties can be used to distinguish wormholes from other astrophysical objects. The visibility horizon, which characterizes the differences between black holes and passing wormholes, is determined in an invariant way. It is shown that the rotation of wormholes does not affect the amount of phantom matter that surrounds them.

Comments: 7 pages, 1 figure, 3 tables

Subjects: Astrophysics (astro-ph)

Journal reference: Astronomy Reports, 2007, V51, N2, p81; Original Russian Text: Shatskii, 2007, published in Astronomicheskii Zhurnal, 2007, V84, N2, p99

Cite as: arXiv:0712.2572v1 [astro-ph]

Submission history

From: Alexander Shatskiy Dr. [view email]

[v1] Sun, 16 Dec 2007 13:45:59 GMT (120kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0712.2572

• ljk December 24, 2007, 2:32

Dark Matter from a gas of wormholes

Authors: A.A. Kirillov, E.P. Savelova

(Submitted on 7 Jul 2007 (v1), last revised 21 Dec 2007 (this version, v3))

Abstract: The simplistic model of the classical spacetime foam is considered, which consists of static wormholes embedded in Minkowski spacetime. We explicitly demonstrate that such a foam structure leads to a topological bias of point-like sources which can equally be interpreted as the presence of a dark halo around any point source. It is shown that a non-trivial halo appears on scales where the topological structure possesses a local inhomogeneity, while the homogeneous structure reduces to a constant renormalization of the intensity of sources. We also show that in general dark halos possess both (positive and negative) signs depending on scales and specific properties of topological structure of space.

Subjects: Astrophysics (astro-ph)

Cite as: arXiv:0707.1081v3 [astro-ph]

Submission history

From: Alex Kirillov [view email]

[v1] Sat, 7 Jul 2007 10:39:11 GMT (4kb)

[v2] Sat, 3 Nov 2007 00:56:01 GMT (15kb)

[v3] Fri, 21 Dec 2007 08:10:36 GMT (15kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.1081

• ljk January 3, 2008, 9:57

Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. II: black holes, naked singularities and wormholes

Authors: Hideki Maeda, Tomohiro Harada, B. J. Carr

(Submitted on 4 Jul 2007 (v1), last revised 2 Jan 2008 (this version, v3))

Abstract: We use a combination of numerical and analytical methods, exploiting the equations derived in a preceding paper, to classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state $p=(\gamma -1)\mu$ with $0 less than \gamma less than 2/3$. The expansion of the Friedmann universe is accelerated in this case. We find a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions representing a black hole embedded in a Friedmann background. This suggests that, in contrast to the positive pressure case, black holes in a universe with dark energy can grow as fast as the Hubble horizon if they are not too large.

There are also self-similar solutions which contain a central naked singularity with negative mass and solutions which represent a Friedmann universe connected to either another Friedmann universe or some other cosmological model. The latter are interpreted as self-similar cosmological white hole or wormhole solutions. The throats of these wormholes are defined as two-dimensional spheres with minimal area on a spacelike hypersurface and they are all non-traversable because of the absence of a past null infinity.

Comments: 12 pages, 19 figures, 1 table, final version to appear in Physical Review D

Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); Astrophysics (astro-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th)

Report number: CECS-PHY-07/16

Cite as: arXiv:0707.0530v3 [gr-qc]

Submission history

From: Hideki Maeda [view email]

[v1] Wed, 4 Jul 2007 02:42:46 GMT (387kb)

[v2] Sat, 6 Oct 2007 02:02:37 GMT (380kb)

[v3] Wed, 2 Jan 2008 19:02:25 GMT (380kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.0530

• ljk January 22, 2008, 9:06

Forget Black Holes, How Do You Find A Wormhole?

Written by Ian O’Neill

Finding a black hole is an easy task… compared with searching
for a wormhole. Suspected black holes have a massive gravitational
effect on planets, stars and even galaxies, generating radiation,
producing jets and accretion disks. Black holes will even bend
light through gravitational lensing.

Now, try finding a wormhole… Any ideas? Well, a Russian researcher
thinks he has found an answer, but a highly sensitive radio telescope
plus a truckload of patience (I’d imagine) is needed to find a special wormhole signature…

http://www.universetoday.com/2008/01/21/forget-black-holes-how-do-you-find-a-wormhole/

• ljk March 17, 2008, 22:26

Thin-shell wormholes supported by ordinary matter in Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet gravity

Authors: Martin Richarte, Claudio Simeone

(Submitted on 10 Oct 2007 (v1), last revised 13 Mar 2008 (this version, v3))

Abstract: The generalized Darmois–Israel formalism for Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet theory is applied to construct thin-shell Lorentzian wormholes with spherical symmetry. We calculate the energy localized on the shell, and we find that for certain values of the parameters wormholes could be supported by matter not violating the energy conditions.

Comments: Errors corrected, conclusion still valid for different values of the parameters. 8 pages, 3 figures

Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); Astrophysics (astro-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th)

Journal reference: Phys. Rev. D 76, 087502 (2007)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.087502

Cite as: arXiv:0710.2041v3 [gr-qc]

Submission history

From: Claudio Simeone [view email]

[v1] Wed, 10 Oct 2007 15:27:45 GMT (137kb)

[v2] Thu, 11 Oct 2007 13:36:28 GMT (137kb)

[v3] Thu, 13 Mar 2008 21:34:56 GMT (148kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0710.2041

• James M. Essig April 28, 2008, 22:03

Hi Folks;

What if by chance a human inside of automobile sized or massed craft could be shrunk to the size of nearly that of a black hole with the same mass.

Perhaps rotating the vehicle in two orthogonal directions until Lorenz contraction along a given tangent line relative to a given circumferential direction of rotation could be utilized to cause the vehicle and crew members to shrink to the size of some of the wormholes that allegedly continuously and ubiquitously form and then disappear as a result of zero point vacuum field fluctuations within the vacuum of our universe.

Such a craft might travel down one such wormhole before the wormhole’s dissolution and then enter a new wormhole followed by another wormhole in a random or if possible somewhat ordered weave like pattern wherein the craft would travel over cosmic distances in space and/or time to remote spatial, spatial-temporal, or temporal locations within our universe, into and through other universes, higher dimensional space, parallel dimensional space and the like.

The caveat here would involve spinning up the craft so that it would become small enough but without sufficient relativistic rotational kinetic energy gain such that it would become a black hole that was to large to fit within a naturally occurring wormhole as such.

One can imagine zero point wormholes fluctuations extending into the space of 26 dimensions or 11 or 10 dimensions of the older bosonic string theory and newer versions of string theory or any of the potentially infinite number of dimensions of p-brane theory.

Some sort a gravatic space-time distortion mechanism may be required to keep the contents and the structure of the rotating vehicle from being annihilated by the tremendous rotationally induced forces that would otherwise result. Obviously some mechanism would be required to prevent such annihilation regardless of the specific mechanism used.

Thanks;

Jim

• James M. Essig April 30, 2008, 0:02

Hi Folks;

The possibility of somehow inducing a blackhole to form out of pure electrically charged matter in macroscopic quantities intrigues me. In particular, what if say one solar mass of electric charge could be teleported or otherwise instilled in a spherical volume of space with a radius of just under 3 Kilometers, the radius of a solar massed blackhole. Suppose the matter took the form of pure electrons, then the amount of electric charge contained within the enclosed spherical shell of radius of 3 kilometers would be about (10 EXP 12)(10 EXP 3)(10 EXP 27) Coulombs = 10 EXP 42 coulumbs.

If a simmilar quantity of electric charge in the form of pure electrons could be deposited within a spherical volume of the same size wherein the two charged spherical volumes would have an on center seperation of 10,000 meters or 10 km, the force acting between the lumps of charged matter would be a stupendous [1/(4 x pi x epsilon naught)] [(10 EXP 42 Coulumbs) EXP 2]/[(10,000 meters) EXP 2] Newtons ~ 10 EXP 88 Newtons. Assumming that such force would act over 10 kilometers yields an energy release of 10 EXP 92 Joules which is approximately 22 orders of magnitude greater than the entire mattergy content of the observable universe.

If we could learn how to marshall enough charge into such a small location by efficiently teleporting it, we might find an incredable way to effectively create energy from relatively small amounts of previous energy.

I will have more to say on black holes and super high concentrations of electric charge in the days ahead.

Thanks;

Jim

• James M. Essig April 30, 2008, 19:32

Hi Folks;

It occured to me that if one solar mass worth of electric charge in the form of electrons could suddenly be instilled in a spherical volumetric element of space with a radius of about 2.9 kilometers say by teleportation, wormhole, or space time multiple connectivity based doors in space time and/or the like, then where exactly would the event horizon be located.

I ask this question because the electromagnetic force for electrons is about 10 EXP 40 times stronger than the gravitational force acting between electrons. Given the self reactance of the huge deposit of electrons thus instilled, would the reactance energy based on the titanic coulombic repulsion result literally in the creation of 10 EXP 22 times more mattery than exists in real form in the observable universe? At what speed would the event horizon thus formed propagate outward from the charge distribution? Perhaps, since the event horizon of blackholes is treated as a boundary problem or as a discontinuity in general relativity, new general relativistic principles would be at work here thus resulting in super-luminal outward travel or expansion of the event horizon for simmilar reasons as the escaple velocity theoretically exceeds C within the event horizon but with passes through the boundary condition of a value of C at the event horizon.

I will have more conjecture related to this concept within a day or so.

Thanks;

Jim

• James M. Essig May 1, 2008, 19:35

Hi Folks;

Regarding solar massed electron aggregates instilled in a spherical region with a volume of a solar massed blackhole, I have often wondered whether a naked singularity would result based on internal electromagnetic or electric field communication to regions outside the would be event horizon by virtue of the fact that the electromagentic force of electron repulsion would seem to be 10 EXP 40 times greater than the gravatic force tending to collapse the charge.

My question is whether or not the outward electric field flux thru a unit area of the enclosing spherical surface would thermodynamically communicate information occuring or originating from within the blackhole such as electrical charge distribution fluctuations (which might enduce strong variations within the Curl of the electric field emmanating from the charge) to the blackhole’s exterior.

Now, the serious question is, If a naked singularity can somehow thus be formed, would it be a completely naked singularity or a partially naked singularity and either way, could any such naked singularity be harnessed technologically without risk to the ouside laws of physics, force constants, dimensionality, integrety of causal determinism etc, in short, could such a naked singularity be produced without threatening the whole universe and possibly the multiverse itself? If such a singularity is safe to produce on a microscopic scale, what could we learn from experimenting with such singularities?

I will have more comments regarding these conjectures in the days ahead.

Thanks;

Jim

• James M. Essig May 4, 2008, 18:52

Hi Folks;

An obviously interesting take on instilling solar masses of electric charge within the rough volume of a solar massed blackhole would be to instill the electrical charge in any of a variety of nonspherical shapes especially those where the greatest dimensional length is much greater than the smallest dimensional length. This would ad variety in any thought experiments as well as in any real experiments that could be done with blackhole density electric charge configurations. Just as an assymmetrical mass that has a great enough density along one dimension to form an event horizon yet perhaps which might have a sub-critical density for such along another dimension might be able to form a naked singularity, the production of the electric field analogue might lead to the discovery of radically new physics principles if such toy models could be experimentally produced somehow in a future laboratory.

One may consider other fields that might analogously be experimented with such as those utilizing supersymmetric particles and fields. A field that comes to mind is that involving sleptons, squarks, and the photino as the supersymmettic analogue to the electromagnetic force.

With all of the fields that are being proposed to exist, we might find that blackholes can have a lot of hairs. At the vary least, considering such charge and other field concentrations might give us insight into the bounding linits of current fundamental formulations and lead to new insights in the structure of space and time relative to the various known and proposed fields.

Thanks;

Jim

• george scaglione May 5, 2008, 12:45

jim,everybody,was trying to answer the above when my computer had a glitch and all was lost! so i came back to try again.wanted to say that finding a wormhole might be relatively easy compared to finding a way to traverse it.but better still…to engineer one to our own use! i had had some ideas on that that i even posted quite awhile ago.but i have to be honest maybe they where not the most valuable ones ever thought up,or at least i never heard much back. but i think eveyone here should seriously give some thought to how we might do something like this.think i still have a copy of that filed somewhere or maybe if we get into a good discussion of the topic i’ll recall.anyway i do find this to be a very important subject especially when you take into account all the space that there is out there to be traversed !! i think that wormholes might be the only truly practical way to get the job done.thank you very much one and all, your friend george

• ljk May 7, 2008, 22:42

Electromagnetic field around a slowly rotating wormhole

Authors: Mubasher Jamil, Muneer Ahmad Rashid

(Submitted on 7 May 2008)

Abstract: We have considered the possibility of a slowly rotating wormhole surrounded by a cloud of charged particles. Due to slow rotation of the wormhole, the charged particles are dragged thereby producing an electromagnetic field. We have determined the strength of this electromagnetic field and the corresponding flux of radiation.

Subjects: Astrophysics (astro-ph)

Cite as: arXiv:0805.0966v1 [astro-ph]

Submission history

From: Mubasher Jamil [view email]

[v1] Wed, 7 May 2008 12:05:23 GMT (5kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0805.0966

• ljk June 9, 2008, 8:58

Can a Wormhole Generate its Own Magnetic Field?

Written by Ian O’Neill

Wormholes are a strange consequence of Einstein’s theory of general relativity. These “shortcuts” through the fabric of space and time may link two different locations in the universe; they may even connect two different universes together. This also leads to the possibility that wormholes can allow travel between two points in time. These strange entities have provided science fiction stories with material for many years, but there is credible physics behind wormholes. Now it seems that in theory slowly-rotating wormholes may be able to generate their own magnetic field. Could this be used to detect the presence of wormholes in our observable Universe?

In a previous Universe Today article, I found some interesting research about the possibility of observing a wormhole using sensitive radio telescopes. What’s more, an observer may be able to see the light from another part of the Universe that has travelled along the wormhole and then emitted through the wormhole’s mouth. An observer could expect to see a bubble-like sphere floating in space, with emitted light intensifying around the rim.

In a publication last month, Mubasher Jamil and Muneer Ahmad Rashid from the National University of Sciences and Technology in Pakistan investigates the properties of a slowly rotating wormhole and the effect this would have on a surrounding volume of space. Their calculations assume a cloud of charged particles (i.e. electrons) are gravitationally attracted to the entity, and as the wormhole rotates, it drags the cloud of electrons with it. This approach had already been carried out when considering the effects of a slowly rotating compact star on surrounding stellar plasma.

http://www.universetoday.com/2008/06/07/can-a-wormhole-generate-its-own-magnetic-field/

• ljk June 10, 2008, 14:11

Wormholes in Bulk Viscous Cosmology

Authors: Mubasher Jamil

(Submitted on 8 Jun 2008)

Abstract: We investigate the effects of the accretion of phantom energy with non-zero bulk viscosity onto a Morris-Thorne wormhole. We have found that if the bulk viscosity is large then the mass of wormhole increases rapidly as compared to small or zero bulk viscosity.

Subjects: Astrophysics (astro-ph)

Cite as: arXiv:0806.1319v1 [astro-ph]

Submission history

From: Mubasher Jamil [view email]

[v1] Sun, 8 Jun 2008 11:28:13 GMT (5kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0806.1319

• ljk September 6, 2008, 13:30

Image of another universe being observed through a wormhole throat

Authors: Alexander Shatskiy

(Submitted on 2 Sep 2008)

Abstract: We consider a technique of calculating deflection of the light passing through wormholes (from one universe to another). We find fundamental and characteristic features of electromagnetic radiation passing through the wormholes.

Making use of this, we propose new methods of observing distinctive differences between wormholes and other objects as well as methods of determining characteristic parameters for different wormhole models.

Subjects: Astrophysics (astro-ph)

Cite as: arXiv:0809.0362v1 [astro-ph]

Submission history

From: Alexander Shatskiy Dr. [view email]

[v1] Tue, 2 Sep 2008 08:08:19 GMT (56kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0809.0362

• ljk February 24, 2009, 1:10

Influence of Rotation on the Amount of Phantom Matter around wormholes

Authors: Alexander Shatskiy

(Submitted on 16 Dec 2007 (v1), last revised 22 Feb 2009 (this version, v2))

Abstract: Static (spherically symmetrical) and stationary solutions for wormholes are considered. The visibility horizon, which characterizes the differences between black holes and passing wormholes, is determined in an invariant way. It is shown that the rotation of wormholes does not affect the amount of phantom matter that surrounds them.

Subjects: Astrophysics (astro-ph)

Journal reference: Astronomy Reports, 2007, V51, N2, p81; Original Russian Text: Shatskii, 2007, published in Astronomicheskii Zhurnal, 2007, V84, N2, p99

Cite as: arXiv:0712.2572v2 [astro-ph]

Submission history

From: Alexander Shatskiy Dr. [view email]

[v1] Sun, 16 Dec 2007 13:45:59 GMT (120kb)

[v2] Sun, 22 Feb 2009 19:49:34 GMT (7kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0712.2572

• ljk April 12, 2009, 23:43

Once again on thin-shell wormholes in scalar-tensor gravity

Authors: Kirill A. Bronnikov, Alexei A. Starobinsky

(Submitted on 30 Mar 2009 (v1), last revised 5 Apr 2009 (this version, v2))

Abstract: It is proved that all thin-shell wormholes built from two identical regions of vacuum static, spherically symmetric space-times have a negative shell surface energy density in any scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a non-ghost massless scalar field and a non-ghost graviton.

Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th)

Report number: RESCEU-5/09

Cite as: arXiv:0903.5173v2 [gr-qc]

Submission history

From: Kirill Bronnikov [view email]

[v1] Mon, 30 Mar 2009 10:25:05 GMT (7kb)

[v2] Sun, 5 Apr 2009 15:15:14 GMT (8kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0903.5173

• ljk June 12, 2009, 19:06

http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/23660/

Wormholes Generate New Kind of Quantum Anticentrifugal Force

Quantum particles entering a wormhole may experience an entirely new class of force.

Friday, June 12, 2009

There is a gangrenous rot at the heart of modern physics. The two most successful pillars of modern physics, quantum theory and general relativity, are at loggerheads, and something has to give.

There is no clearer demonstration of this than in the study of quantum mechanics in curved spaces. Quantum mechanics works well in the flat Euclidian space in which we appear to live, but nobody knows how it fares in the curved space that general relativity predicts. And surprisingly, physicists have spent little time bothering to find out.

But today, Rossen Dandolo from the Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, in France, takes a stab at nailing the behavior of quantum particles in the highly curved geometry of a wormhole.

His starting point is the Heisenburg Uncertainty principle, which states that you cannot know a particle’s location in space and its momentum at the same time. It is only possible to measure one or the other with any degree of certainty.

Dandolo points out that if space is stretched so that the uncertainty in position is greater than it would otherwise be in a flat space, then the uncertainty in momentum must be less. And that means the energy of the particle must be lower too.

So a highly curved region of space must act like a potential well, pulling quantum particles toward it (since they’ll naturally move to the region with the lowest energy).

Dandolo calls this the quantum anticentrifugal force.

A similar effect has been found for certain quantum particles in two-dimensional space, one of a number of strange forces that arise when you fiddle with the space. These forces are called quantum fictitious forces because they vary according to the dimensions of space, and so can’t arise in the real space in which the universe is embedded (at least that’s how the thinking goes).

But that raises another question: what exactly is the space in which the universe is embedded? There’s no consensus on that, and until there is, quantum physics and general relativity will continue to live in a twilight world of theoretical ambiguity where quantum forces may or may not be fictional.

Ref: http://arxiv.org/abs/0906.1209: Quantum Anticentrifugal Force for Wormhole Geometry

• ljk July 12, 2009, 11:30

Quintom wormholes

Authors: Peter K.F. Kuhfittig, Farook Rahaman, Ashis Ghosh

(Submitted on 4 Jul 2009)

Abstract: The combination of quintessence and phantom energy in a joint model is referred to as quintom dark energy. This paper discusses traversable wormholes supported by such quintom matter.

Two particular solutions are explored, a constant redshift function and a specific shape function. Both isotropic and anisotropic pressures are considered.

Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)

Cite as: arXiv:0907.0760v1 [gr-qc]

Submission history

From: Peter K.F. Kuhfittig [view email]

[v1] Sat, 4 Jul 2009 14:02:23 GMT (297kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0907.0760

• ljk July 17, 2009, 16:13

Homogeneous singularities inside collapsing wormholes

Authors: Elena I. Novikova, Igor D. Novikov

(Submitted on 11 Jul 2009 (v1), last revised 16 Jul 2009 (this version, v2))

Abstract: We analyze analytically and numerically the origin of the singularity in the course of the collapse of a wormhole with the exotic scalar field Psi with negative energy density, and with this field Psi together with the ordered magnetic field H. We do this under the simplifying assumptions of the spherical symmetry and that in the vicinity of the singularity the solution of the Einstein equations depends only on one coordinate (the homogeneous approximation).

In the framework of these assumptions we found the principal difference between the case of the collapse of the ordinary scalar field Phi with the positive energy density together with an ordered magnetic field H and the collapse of the exotic scalar field Psi together with the magnetic field H. The later case is important for the possible astrophysical manifestation of the wormholes.

Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures each of which has a),b),c),and d) sub-figures. To be published in “Physical review. D, Particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology”

Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Cite as: arXiv:0907.1936v2 [gr-qc]

Submission history

From: Elena Novikova Ph.D. [view email]

[v1] Sat, 11 Jul 2009 03:58:07 GMT (60kb)

[v2] Thu, 16 Jul 2009 02:23:45 GMT (60kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0907.1936

• ljk September 1, 2009, 21:23

Homogeneous singularities inside collapsing wormholes

Authors: Elena I. Novikova, Igor D. Novikov

(Submitted on 11 Jul 2009 (v1), last revised 31 Aug 2009 (this version, v3))

Abstract: We analyze analytically and numerically the origin of the singularity in the course of the collapse of a wormhole with the exotic scalar field Psi with negative energy density, and with this field Psi together with the ordered magnetic field H. We do this under the simplifying assumptions of the spherical symmetry and that in the vicinity of the singularity the solution of the Einstein equations depends only on one coordinate (the homogeneous approximation).

In the framework of these assumptions we found the principal difference between the case of the collapse of the ordinary scalar field Phi with the positive energy density together with an ordered magnetic field H and the collapse of the exotic scalar field Psi together with the magnetic field H. The later case is important for the possible astrophysical manifestation of the wormholes.

Comments: 10 pages, 5 figures each of which has a),b),c),and d) sub-figures. To be published in “Physical review. D, Particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology”

Subjects: General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc); Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics (astro-ph.CO)

Cite as: arXiv:0907.1936v3 [gr-qc]

Submission history

From: Elena Novikova Ph.D. [view email]

[v1] Sat, 11 Jul 2009 03:58:07 GMT (60kb)

[v2] Thu, 16 Jul 2009 02:23:45 GMT (60kb)

[v3] Mon, 31 Aug 2009 23:18:14 GMT (60kb)

http://arxiv.org/abs/0907.1936