New Findings on Eris

by Paul Gilster on October 27, 2011

Back when I was writing my Centauri Dreams book in 2004, I remember talking to JPL’s James Lesh about various aspects of communicating with distant spacecraft. Lesh had written an interesting paper on how we might communicate with an Alpha Centauri probe, and we went on to discuss laser communications in the context of today’s Deep Space Network. What stuck in my mind about that conversation was how much we can learn when one thing moves in front of another. Lesh pointed out how useful it is to examine a radio signal when a spacecraft moves behind a planet, studying the attenuation of the signal and learning more about the planet itself.

When a celestial object moves in front of a distant star, we also get useful results, as has recently happened in our studies of the dwarf planet Eris. You’ll recall that it was Eris that kicked off a new round of controversy about Pluto, for the early estimates were that the diameter of Eris (then thought to be 3000 kilometers) was actually 25 percent larger than Pluto’s. The possibility of numerous such objects in the Kuiper Belt caused us to reassess the definition of the word ‘planet,’ leading to the creation of ‘dwarf planet’ as the operative term for both Eris and Pluto.

But in November of last year, Eris occulted a distant star, an event monitored at two sites in Chile, including the TRAPPIST (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope) at La Silla. We learn from this that Eris is close to spherical, assuming there are no large mountains on the object, and that Pluto and Eris are more or less the same size, with the new diameter calculated for Eris coming in at 2326 kilometers (Pluto’s is between 2300 and 2400 kilometers). It’s interesting that Pluto’s diameter is actually harder to measure because even with the help of past occultations, the presence of an atmosphere makes the measurement less precise.

Image: This artist’s impression shows the shadow of the dwarf planet Eris as it was crossing the Earth during the occultation in November of 2010. The regions along the path saw a faint star briefly disappear as its light was blocked by Eris. Studies of where the event was seen, and for how long, have allowed astronomers to measure the size of Eris accurately for the first time. Surprisingly, they find it to be almost exactly the same size as Pluto and learn that it has a very reflective surface. Credit: ESO/L. Calçada.

Eris turns out to be reflective indeed, with an albedo of 0.96 (reflecting some 96 percent of the light that falls on it). This ESO news release notes that this albedo makes the dwarf planet brighter than fresh snow on Earth, flagging it as one of the most reflective objects in the Solar System, in company with Saturn’s moon Enceladus. Moreover, studies of Eris’ moon Dysnomia help us arrive at a mass estimate for Eris, which turns out to be 27 percent heavier than Pluto, with a density estimated at 2.52 grams per cubic centimeter. Emmanuel Jehin, one of the researchers involved in the occultation study, says this about the finding:

“This density means that Eris is probably a large rocky body covered in a relatively thin mantle of ice. This layer of ice could result from the dwarf planet’s nitrogen or methane atmosphere condensing as frost onto its surface as it moves away from the Sun in its elongated orbit and into an increasingly cold environment.”

Estimates suggest a surface temperature of -238 Celsius on the day side of Eris, but when the object moves back toward perihelion in its orbit (37.8 AU), the ice Jehin is talking about may well turn back into gas. Eris is currently at 96.6 AU, near aphelion. Telescopes at 26 different locations around the globe were used to observe the occultation, but the dwarf planet’s shadow was only detected at the two sites in Chile, where a sudden drop in brightness was apparent. But even with small telescopes, the value of one celestial object moving in front of another is again demonstrated, helping us learn more about a dwarf planet on the edge of the Solar System.

The paper is Sicardy et al., “A Pluto-like radius and a high albedo for the dwarf planet Eris from an occultation,” Nature 478, 493–496 (27 October 2011). Abstract available.

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Adam October 28, 2011 at 2:31

Means the heat flux is quite high if the radioactives in the rock are chondritic meteorite levels. Cryovolcanism might be very likely.

Adam October 28, 2011 at 2:37

BTW it means Eris has a surface gravity of 0.5 Lunar. According to the 100YSS talk on artificial gee, weightlessness and low gravity are physiologically equivalent from about 0.1 g downwards.

Astronist October 29, 2011 at 20:21

So did that talk suggest that we could live on the Moon without suffering the problems of maladaptation we find in microgravity? According to Adam Hawkey, the suggestion is that we need at least 0.4 Earth surface gravity for health, with Mars very much a borderline case. (Of course, without actual experiments we don’t really know.)

Stephen
Oxford, UK

Adam Crowl October 30, 2011 at 3:12

Hi Stephen

No, that’s not what I meant. Low-gee will probably be much like zero-gee and less-like full-gee. At about 0.1 gee the “gee-side” of the curve bottoms out and the “zero-gee” side dominates the body’s physiological response. Thus Eris is a bit too low for any kind of gee-effect. The Moon has a bit of gee-response from the body, but is still low. Mars, I am not convinced it’s gee is not sufficient. I think ~0.25-0.3 will probably suffice, but who knows until we live in such conditions?

Rob Henry October 30, 2011 at 20:01

I, and many of my friends, are avid runners. To non-runners it is probably not obvious how much Earth’s crushing gravity seems to be a above the top fully operational limit for human health. I put it to you that, at lower gravity, the propensity of humans to increase levels of healthy and fulfilling activity will overcompensate for the calcium losses expected in models that assume no change in behaviour. I can well imagine that real problems only begin at that lower limit of 0.1g, and have difficulty believing that 0.4g presents any problems outside laboratory based projections. My guess is that Eris should now be considered on the list of worlds of future human habitation.

Laurel Kornfeld November 9, 2011 at 18:28

Eris’s rocky nature and possible cryovolcanism support its classification as a planet. Dr. Alan Stern coined the term “dwarf planet” in 1991 to refer to a third class of planets in addition to terrestrials and jovians, small planets large enough to be rounded by their own gravity but not large enough to gravitationally dominate their orbits. He never intended for dwarf planets to not be considered planets at all. Given that the controversial IAU vote was based on erroneous information, one can hope the IAU leadership will seriously consider amending its 2006 resolution to include dwarf planets as a subclass of planets. Of course, the sooner we can get a probe like New Horizons to Eris, the better our chances for learning more about this strange new world.

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